Thor is an actual god of Norse mythology. As such, he is from Asgard. He was born on Earth in a save in Norway. His powers include super strength, a resistance to injury, an extended lifespan, and remarkable endurance, and he has a hammer that only enhances his power. He has many enemies, and Loki could be considered his arch-nemesis. However, he has fought other characters as part of the Avengers.
Captain America is the product of a World War Two army experiment, and this means that he is a person who is displaced in time by a wide margin. As such, he is somewhat out of touch with the modern world and its culture. He was born in New York City. His powers include super strength, super speed, and excellent durability and fighting skills. Captain America has many enemies, and the Red Skull is the enemy that is featured most often. He does have different enemies as part of the Avengers, however, including Loki and Apocalypse.
The Incredible Hulk was born in Dayton, Ohio. He was few powers in his human form as Bruce Banner, other than extreme intelligence. However, his powers as the Hulk are truly unbelievable. He is capable of basically crushing entire cities as the Incredible Hulk, and he has the strength and endurance to really make it happen. His resistance to physical damage is such that even some of the most powerful weapons on the Earth cannot defeat him. Some people would say that Bruce’s father is has main enemy, given that the abuse that he endured helped to make him the Hulk in the first place, since the Hulk is an expression of his repressed rage. However, in the modern parts of the comics, the Hulk battles Tyrannus, the Red King, and Sandman. As part of the Avengers team, the Incredible Hulk has fought Loki and Apocalypse and other villains.
The Flash is also known as Barry Allen. He comes from Central City, and he worked as a forensic specialist originally. The primary power that Barry Allen is known for is his speed, which is what gives him his name. He is the fastest man alive. However, he also has brain activity that is hugely enhanced and a high metabolism, the power of time travel using his speed as a mechanism, and supercharged brain activity. Mirror Master I, Heat Wave, and Captain Cold are all enemies of the Flash.
The Green Lantern is an alien from another planet, specifically Korugar. Green Lantern is a title that his people have with regards to where they are stationed. His Green Lantern is basically a badge of authority to wear, and it is an object as well as a title. As such, Green Lantern has alien technology as one of his powers, and the alien technology is capable of accomplishing a lot. His instant weaponry can make him a formidable opponent. He also has the powers of flight and can generate force fields. His enemies include Black Hand, Vandal Savage, and Sonar.
Wonder Woman is an actual goddess from the Greek Pantheon. She is a member of the Amazons, and specifically hails from Paradise Island or Themyscira. She has the powers that people would expect of a goddess, including her superhuman longevity, a healing factor, superhuman strength, acute senses, hand-to-hand combat training that would shock most people, and many seemingly magical implements that allow her to expand her range of powers even further. She has magical bracelets that have many powers as well as a Lasso of Truth. Her enemies include Circe, Doctor Cyber, and Cheetah.
Wasp’s real name is Janet van Dyne. Wasp is able to send out powerful discharged air that she can more or less use to hurt or incapacitate people. She’s capable of both increasingly and decreasing her size substantially. Her implanted insect wings also allow her to fly. As a large wasp, she is very strong. She was born into a wealthy American family, and she lived off of her father’s wealth for a while.
As part of the Avengers, the Wasp’s enemies included Loki, Apocalypse, and many others. They work as part of a team discharging various threats facing the entire world.
Scarlet Witch is human and her exact place of origin is largely unspecified. Scarlet Witch, also known as Wanda Maximoff, has the ability to change the probabilities of certain events happen. As such, she is essentially warping reality in a very real way. She is also capable of chaos magic, which can defeat enemies in very unpredictable ways.
Scarlet Witch has been a villain herself at different points. However, as a good guy, her enemies have included Apocalypse, Loci, and Magneto.
Iron Man is also known as Anthony Stark. He was born in Long Island, New York and is extremely wealthy and successful.
Iron Man has no physical powers of his own. While he is brilliant, his intellectual powers could not be described as super-intelligence. However, in his Iron Man suit, he is nearly indestructible and he is able to cause untold devastation.
Iron Man is someone who is effectively fighting America’s wars with his suit, and so he has a great deal of enemies. Obadiah Stane, Blizzard, Minotaur, and Spymaster are all Iron Man enemies.
Aquaman was literally born in Atlantis. In many story lines, he is the actual king of Atlantis. As a member of the Justice League, he can live in various places.
Aquaman is able to communicate with all marine life telepathically, often from a very broad distance. He is sometimes able to affect other animals as well, including animals like eagles. However, it should be noted that Aquaman was adapted to live in some of the most difficult conditions on the planet, conditions which are particularly hostile to humans. He has superhuman strength, endurance, senses, agility, and healing as a result. His skin is also nearly impenetrable.
Aquaman’s nemesis is usually Black Manta. Ocean Master is another villain from the Aquaman series. As such, the series never really takes Aquaman far from home.